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Girl-Friendly Toilets

Qualitative Insights to the Benefit of Female Students in Public Secondary Schools


Kankali Secondary School (KSS) in Naikap, Nepal, is high up on the west side of Kathmandu valley in a very poor area. Started in 1982, its young Headmaster, Bishnu Paneru has helped build KSS into a high achieving Public Community School, with almost 400 students. KSS is now regarded as a model school in Kathmandu Valley. It also functioned as a support hub for the community after the earthquake in April 2015.

The non-profit Association Luxembourg-Nepal (ALN), started to support the Kankali Secondary School in the 1990’s. Inspired by their work, André Linden, a retired Market Research Director from Soremartec (Ferrero) and ESOMAR member, who studied at Heidelberg University with Claudine Hengesch, the President of ALN, started to sponsor the KSS students, and the school itself from 1993.

In 2013 Kankali Secondary School faced a decline in the number of students. The Nepalese newspapers were reporting an “unhealthy competition” in the Nepalese education system due to commercially-oriented Private schools. To be able to understand better the situation and find ways to support KSS, André Linden commissioned research with Simon Patterson and his team at QRi Consulting.

A three-stage methodology was adopted:

  1. Desk Research. QRi conducted Desk Research sourcing relevant reports from UNESCO, World Bank, UN Development Programme, USAID, and education conference papers. The findings were written into a 120-page draft report; “Understanding the Nepalese education system today – Looking for sustainable opportunities for development of Kankali Secondary School in Kathmandu Valley”.
  2. Qualitative field trip inspired by cultural anthropology. Simon and André organized a visit to Kathmandu in March 2014 to see for themselves the differences in quality standards, in all respects, between Private and Public schools. Together with a group of Headmasters, they visited 9 schools, including KSS, and conducted interviews with the Directors of each school. In addition, a meeting was held with the District Education Officer (DEO) of Kathmandu, during which the draft report was reviewed. Everything was documented with video, audio recording, and photographs.
  3. Field Analysis and Report. Once back, QRi completed the report, integrating the findings from the field trip, all the input received in Nepal, as well as input from Associate Professor Martha Cardell (Edinburgh University), whose papers on the subject had been recommended by the DEO, and who, during a subsequent mail exchange, underlined its importance for the community.

In July 2014, the final report was sent to all participants and stakeholders.

The Desk Research confirmed to Headmaster Paneru and his colleagues the value and importance of Public Community Schools. It also highlighted that boys’ education is given priority by the Nepalese Society. Boys tend to be sent to Private schools (at high cost), and girls, by default, are sent to Public schools in Nepal.

The field trip enabled us to understand in concrete terms the competition that Public schools were experiencing. We also heard first-hand the high potential of the female students. At a debriefing with the headmasters, everybody agreed “Girls are the hidden treasure of Nepal’s Public secondary schools”.

Whilst visiting one particular Public school the issue of girls’ safety and attendance came up. Then, as the discussion developed, we became aware that the girls’ toilets were rather basic, and the Headmaster disclosed that the girls had in fact been increasingly complaining about them. The existing toilets were only able to facilitate communal urination, with no cabins and no privacy. Defecation had to be done in the woods (part of the general Open Defecation problem in the region).  The poor facilities also meant that girls tended to stay home during their monthly cycle, thus missing classes.

Old Girl’s Toilets in Janabikas Secondary School, March 2014

This issue had not emerged through the desk research and had not been openly discussed before. This moment of truth had been made possible by the atmosphere of openness and trust that we encouraged as we toured the schools with the Headmasters, in a research setting.

Actions and Outcomes

The key difference this research made in human terms was the building of Girl-Friendly Toilets first at KSS’s sister school, Janabikas Secondary School, in 2015, then at KSS in 2017.

New Girl-Friendly Toilets in Janabikas Secondary School, 2015

The Girl-Friendly Toilets have increased morale and self-respect amongst the female students, as well as increasing attendance of classes. One headmaster wrote: “The facility of Girl-Friendly Toilets has given the school pride for all the students, staff, stakeholders and the community.”

 Another impact of this innovative research, resulting in the building of Girl-Friendly Toilets in two Secondary Schools in Kathmandu Valley, is that two other Luxembourg NGO’s active in the region have asked ALN for detailed information, studying it as a model for their own school projects.

We believe this case to be a significant example of where Qualitative Research has really made a difference relevant for society and NGO’s.

About the Authors:

Simon Patterson, Founder & CEO, QRI Consulting

André Linden, retired Market Research Director from Soremartec (Ferrero)

Umbrella of Hope

St. Jude Child-care centres (SJ), established in 2006, provides free accommodation and holistic support for needy families travelling for their children’s cancer treatment to metropolitan hospitals in India. Lumière conducted two research studies for SJ in 2010 and 2011.

SJ was on the threshold of expansion and needed to assess how their vision could be expanded while keeping the core intact. There was a need to evaluate project operations and efficiency in the three centers in Parel and in Kharghar, to bring maximum benefit to the children and families. Lumière conducted in-depth interviews with all stakeholders for a 360 degree feedback, and provided SJ a situation analysis with suggestions on expansion of services and new initiatives to better serve the beneficiary families. The initial study provided an insight into how families perceived SJ. It helped SJ arrive at the core essence which gave SJ the confidence to replicate the model across geographical boundaries. Venturing out of Parel and testing the first ex-Mumbai pilot, Kharghar, gave SJ the confidence to build a road map for scaling the vision.

A 360-degree research approach

Qualitative research methodology was used for the strategic social research projects for Parel (2010) and Kharghar (2011) centers. Our project team led by Deepa Soman visited all centers under consideration and used a combination of techniques, one-on-one interviews with founder, COO and center managers, family interviews, ethnographic observations. The sample included a mix of families by demographics, to cover children of different age of child, new/ returnee child, place of origin, parents’ profession. A 360-degree research approach was used to allow for in-center ethnographic observations (family units, community kitchen, dining area, washing and common areas), family interviews and focus group discussions. The moderator brought great sensitivity given the context (kids with cancer), build rapport, trust and comfort with the families and children, as many belonged to rural and disadvantaged societies. Multiple visits to the centers helped build familiarity and bridge distance with respondents. Focus group discussions were groups of 15 people. They were inclusive, long and more like ‘sharing circles’ than a focus group discussion. It included a mix of cohorts to optimize interactions. Notes taken from the interactions were used for analysis and report preparation. We used the brand key framework and archetype theory to arrive at the SJ core.


SJ sought to anticipate the challenges to scale with questions on whether to extend outside Mumbai, or have more centers within the city, disease focus on cancer or to consider diseases like heart and tuberculosis. The output helped arrive at core values and confidence that the core was robust and replicable. The strong, stable, committed leadership team was equipped to strategize and execute their road map for growth.

In 2006 SJ served 159 families through 3 centers, in the vicinity of the top cancer hospital in the country, Tata Memorial Hospital. The SJ team gained more confidence after setting up the center ex- Mumbai in the ACTREC facility of Tata Memorial Hospital. Unlike Parel centers which had the advantage of constant monitoring, visits, and guidance for smooth working, the Kharghar pilot was remote working. Lessons learned from stabilizing Kharghar centers were used to expand to other cities. This study provided a tipping point in the expansion strategy of SJ.

The SJ model was created for cancer care with the vision, ‘Every child coming to the city for treatment should have a SJ home to stay’. SJ grew in other cities, with centers in Kolkata (2012), Delhi (2013) and Hyderabad and Jaipur (2014).

Lumière conducted a baseline study in 2013 as part of a donor management requirement for funds utilization. This was a formal audit that used methodology of observation, documentation reviews on issue and usage, as well as traditional methods of face-to-face interviews of center staff. Building robust donor management systems is key to expansion.

In 2014 technology and process audits was conducted to identify the situation analysis, identify gaps and success process and technology improvement to enable ramp up. Post the study inputs, MIS systems have improved and offer real time feedback and proactive issue identification and resolution. Currently in phase I, staff across the country is trained to update MIS with patient information. Daily reports are generated through MIS.

Today in 2018

SJ operates 35 functional centers pan-India in 6 locations with on-going expansion. 2648 new families were admitted at SJ since 2009. SJ has opened centers in Vellore in 2018, and Guwahati will commence later this year. SJ caters to pediatric cancer patients with chances of survival. The support systems for families includes counselling for patients and families, art-based therapy, yoga, education, skill development for parents. An impact study of 60 families who went back home showed adopting healthy practices leading to an improvement in children’s response to treatment.

About the Author:

Deepa Soman, Managing Director, Lumière, India


Changing Global Consumer Habits for a Healthier Planet

Levels of meat supply have risen dramatically over the last decades according to the United Nations Food & Agriculture Organisation1.

However, according to Greenpeace, the organization behind this research, the consumption of meat is associated with many negative effects on our climate and environment as well as on our health, such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and several cancer types. Greenpeace hence identified the crucial need to change people’s behaviour for a better health, climate and environment in the future.

Decreasing meat consumption requires extensive knowledge of the role of meat in the society and of how to motivate a change of habits.

To be able to successfully promote a decrease in meat consumption Greenpeace first needed to gain an understanding of the cultural connotations of meat and current eating habits to then be able to identify strategies that could lead to a shift in consumption patterns – having in mind that the final goal is a change in mindsets and habits rather than only short-term behavioural changes.

To understand the role of meat and derive promising strategies, Danish market research consultancy Epinion conducted an explorative cross-country study using a mobile ethnography platform. The study focused on uncovering the complex and varying local perceptions, traditions, emotions and behavioural patterns surrounding meat consumption that can be expected to affect the potential for changing dietary habits. The end goal of the research project was to create input for a campaign with global appeal whilst allowing for local adaptions to ensure maximum impact.

Figure 1: 62 consumers from 6 countries participated in the qualitative research study by Epinion

The study included 62 consumers from 6 countries (Argentina, China, Denmark, France, New Zealand and Thailand), representing various cultural dimensions as well as different patterns in meat consumption. The group of participants covered families as well as singles and couples that were identified as the target group in the screening process.

Meat plays a lead role in meals across the world because it is seen to satisfy essential needs.

Figure 2: The different layers representing the meaning of food

The study confirmed that what people eat and under which circumstances holds numerous meanings across countries. There are overall three “layers” in which to understand the “meaning” of food and meat.

In a busy life, meat is chosen because it is an accessible, cheap, easy and fast way to provide oneself and the family with nourishment. Furthermore, in many cultures meat is considered essential for a healthy diet and is, not least, strongly associated with indulgence and hospitality.

The study identified a lack of knowledge and awareness of the societal and personal implications as the first obstacles that must be overcome to reduce meat consumption.

The fear that a reduction of meat in the daily diet would decrease the quality of life, as well as the lack of ideas regarding how to operationalize a decrease in meat consumption in daily life, has been diagnosed as a further barrier.

 To trigger attention, the campaign had to create a strong sense of urgency in a way that empowers people to act and highlights the personal benefits of changing dietary patterns.

Greenpeace always had a reputation for confronting those in positions of power with their responsibilities – often through interventions to stop an immediate environmental wrong right there at the scene. But this time another approach was needed: one that raises the awareness and changes the actions of the general population.

This study provided the NGO with clear and practical guidelines on how the need for a reduction in meat can be made comprehensible and relevant to a broad audience. With insights into the behavioural patterns and attitudes of the general population as the starting point the study clarified that abstract problems must be addressed with tangible measures that allow people to take the steps towards a healthier planet that are relevant and realistic in their specific cultural context. 

Since completing this research project in 2017 Greenpeace has implemented a variety of local and global initiatives.

All of them, including the global ‘Less Meat More Life’ campaign, play into the identified behavioural patterns and barriers. The ‘Less Meat more Life’ campaign encourages a better life though less meat, rather than shaming people for their current lifestyles. It also provides concrete strategies that translate the overall aim into everyday actions, empowering people to make changes in their daily habits and their local communities, e.g. by providing appealing recipes that help people to easily include more plants in their diet.

Figure 3: The Greenpeace cookbook – Helping people to reduce meat consumption

With this research project, Greenpeace has therefore taken a crucial first step towards ensuring their ability to create lasting change and impact globally. With the gained knowledge Greenpeace was able to improve their communication to ensure it will not simply speak to their existing supporters, but also to the millions of people who are not naturally engaged in politics or the preservation of the environment.

At the time of writing 259.915 people have actively joined the Greenpeace campaign.

  1. UN Food & Agriculture Organisation. 2018. FAO. [ONLINE] Available: http://www.fao.org. [Accessed 28 June 2018].

About the Authors:

Antonia Dedekind, Manager, Epinion

Helena Linde Pedersen, Senior Consultant, Epinion


Public Awareness of HIV Epidemic in Ukraine

Ukraine has the second-largest HIV epidemic in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. In 2016, 240,000 people were living with HIV – 120,000 more than in 2010.

Annual new HIV infections in the country have risen from 9,500 in 2010 to 17,000 in 2016, although the infection rate slowed down in 2014 and 2015, suggesting recent prevention measures are having a positive effect. However, recent gains are being threatened by the military conflict that broke out in 2014.

The research on Public Awareness of HIV Epidemic in Ukraine has been conducted by GfK Ukraine annually starting from 2013 for Public Health Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine and funded by GIZ. The last wave of the research was conducted in November 2017.

The objective of the research is to evaluate the awareness of the State All-Ukrainian Informational Campaign “Don’t Give AIDS a Chance!” implemented with the Public Health Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, and to measure HIV and AIDS-related knowledge, behaviour, and attitudes in Ukraine.

The research presents the detailed overview of public awareness of HIV/AIDS, general public attitude to HIV issues, the practice of responsible behaviour – condom use and HIV testing – and the level of tolerance towards HIV-positive people. It covers four main levels of perception of PLWH: the perception of unfamiliar PLWH (Bogardus scale), perception of acquaintances in case of getting HIV, perception of the acquaintances that are PLWH, and perception of HIV-positive children.

Thus the survey shows trends in changes of public opinion, attitudes and level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS topics. The study of the latter issue is very detailed. Specifically, there are the questions of HIV transmission via unprotected vaginal, oral and anal sex.  Ukrainians know about HIV transmission via oral and anal sex significantly less often than via vaginal sex.

This data can serve as a basis for NGOs and state institutions in the planning and realization of effective interventions/initiatives in the field of HIV/AIDS.

The sample size of 2,260 interviews includes 1,000 respondents aged over 15 years for a nationally representative sample and boosters of 1,260, which were conducted in order to have the sufficient sample for the analysis of the population aged 15-24 and the population of the two target regions of the State All-Ukrainian Informational Campaign “Don’t Give AIDS a Chance!”.

Planning responsive measures

The research results provide data that help to plan and organize responsive measures to the HIV/ AIDS epidemic among the general public and also contribute to the process of the ongoing healthcare reform in Ukraine. The research measures and shows the demand for different services, such as HIV express testing. For example, according to the results of the last research, the number of people, who were tested for HIV in the cabinet of family doctors, increased from 5% in 2015 to 10% in 2017. This data is used during the planning and implementation of different healthcare interventions.

Within the frame of the State All-Ukrainian Informational Campaign “Don’t Give AIDS a Chance!” implemented with the Public Health Center of the Ministry of Health of Ukraine, almost all waves of the Campaign were based on the results of the abovementioned study.

For instance, the Campaign of 2015 “To Believe or Not” was designed to convey two messages – condom use and HIV testing. This Campaign was created based on the survey results. It showed that 38% of people did not use condoms when they trusted their partners, even if they saw him/her for the first time. The campaign suggested taking an online test that checks whether a person would believe the handsome partner who is telling compliments and persuades to have unsafe sex.  After taking the test, the person could find the explanation of test results and description of HIV-related risks.

As of 2015, 60% of Ukrainians never were tested for HIV. As a result of the dissemination of information, in 2017 more people were tested, and early diagnostics of HIV in the regions increased up to 7%, according to the data from the regional AIDS-centers.

Furthermore, the above-mentioned research provides the national indicators for Global AIDS. Monitoring (GAM) report. This year’s indicators of “the percentage of young people who correctly identify ways of preventing sexual transmission of HIV and reject major misconceptions about HIV” and “the percentage of women and men who have had sexual intercourse with a casual partner in the last year and used a condom during the last sexual intercourse”, measured in frames of the survey, were included into the GAM report provided by Ukraine to UNAIDS headquarters in order to report the situation with AIDS epidemic in Ukraine. Both indicators showed positive trends compared to previous years.

The full report is available here:


The site of the State All-Ukrainian Informational Campaign “Don’t Give AIDS a Chance!” can be found here:  http://aidsfacts.helpme.com.ua/


About the Authors:

Tamila Konoplytska, Senior Researcher at GFK Ukraine

Inna Volosevych, Head of Social and Political Research Department at GFK Ukraine


Best international NFP case study


“This simple and impactful case study is set for making a tremendous difference across all NFPs globally”


Our Better World (OBW), the digital storytelling initiative of the Singapore International Foundation,  needed to better understand the national psyche and uncover drivers to culturally and socially relevant story themes to better connect and inspire action across Asia. They needed to understand online audiences in Asia to help develop more meaningful stories that would touch the hearts and minds of Asian people to act.

That’s why they called upon Kantar Millward Brown to develop a dual approach including personal interactions on the ground, combined with the effectiveness of digital – deployed in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, India and Philippines.


It is often difficult to quantify the impact of qualitative research, but the key impact has been to provide OBW practical tips in telling better, bolder and more meaningful stories to provoke reaction.

The research allowed OBW to decode what’s ‘contributing to social causes’ means for people. They were able to identify a sprectrum of motivations in social contribution – ranging from a desire to change (e.g. overturn atrocities) to a desire to enhance (e.g. improve lives and communities). Insights helped OBW construct the defining characteristics of meaningful stories by market and the role of online.

OBW was able to develop a much-needed formula to define authenticity and meaning for impact storytelling!

One example!

India – OBW ran a story about child sexual abuse, calling for social change and action, which resulted in over 1020 volunteer inquiries. This shows a significant uplift in impact in comparison to a pre-research story about animals, that, whilst heart-warming, lacked strong call for change and resulted in only 105 volunteer sign-ups.



As the digital storytelling initiative of the Singapore International Foundation, Our Better World (OBW) tells the stories of people doing good in Asia, inspiring online audiences to take action so that the non-profits or social enterprises featured in the stories get more support to impact more lives. Their stories feature a wide range of causes and focus is on creating greater impact.

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Kantar Millward Brown is an industry leader and innovator with over 40 years of advertising, media, brand equity research, and consulting experience.


Most innovative NFP case study


“Huge potential impact in India and internationally where diarrhea kills large numbers. This is a really excellent, thorough and innovative and effective piece of research”


Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children and dehydration is the main driver. Yet there is a simple, cheap, and scalable solution – the use of oral rehydration solutions (ORS). With a population of ~217 million people, the state of Uttar Pradesh (UP) accounts for a substantial portion of the over 200,000 diarrheal-related deaths in India. Only 30% of the children with diarrhea used ORS. In UP, 84% of caregivers of children with diarrhea seek care from a rural medical practitioner (RMPs) – informal and often non-medically trained providers in the communities. To improve the uptake of ORS, partners on the ground hypothesized that improving the RMPs access to ORS and providing them with the best treatment practices of diarrheal cases would significantly improve the use of ORS. A state-wide program of direct detailing of ORS to RMPs combined with direct messaging was initiated and scaled. However, after 3 years of investment, the levels of ORS usage among children did not improve. The objective of this research, led by Surgo Foundation, was to identify the barriers to ORS uptake and identify strategies to improve it.

A mixed method approach that combined a quantitative with innovative behavioural science methods was used to understand what was driving ORS uptake and led to develop a radically revised theory of how to increase the use of ORS to treat diarrhea in children.


Instead of focusing exclusively on RMPs, programs should create demand for ORS by reframing caregivers’ perception of the treatment. This would help RMPs to bridge their “know-do” gap and prescribe ORS with confidence.

Collectively, these strategies led to an increase in ORS uptake in UP from 30% to 50% in under two years. This approach to getting a deep and nuanced understanding of the ‘why’ before jumping into solutions has significant implications for diarrheal treatment and child mortality programs globally.

The study was designed, led, and analyzed by Surgo Foundation. On-site implementation by Clinton Health Access Initiative and RGMVP.


The Surgo Foundation is an innovative Action Tank focused on generating transformational impact in intractable development challenges.

RGMVP- Rajiv Gandhi Mahila Vikas Pariyojana has developed a community-driven, inclusive and scalable model for poverty reduction and women’s empowerment, which has grown out of a strong network of Self-Help Groups and created a chain reaction across the most populous state in India.

Help and reward RGMVP- Rajiv Gandhi Mahila Vikas Pariyojana

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Final Mile Consulting pioneers the practice of Behavior Architecture. We understand, explain, and influence decision-making by applying learnings from Cognitive Neuroscience, Behavioral Economics, and Design.

Ipsos “Game Changers” At Ipsos we are passionately curious about people, markets, brands and society. We deliver information and analysis that makes our complex world easier and faster to navigate and inspires our clients to make smarter decisions.


Best local/domestic NFP case study


“This very important piece of research is something that could make a real difference to half the population.”


Catholic Relief Services (CRS) needed to determine whether menstrual management practices have an impact on school absenteeism for girls and wanted to evaluate how the Congolese government’s “Health Schools and Villages” programme supported by UNICEF, could contribute in improving menstrual hygiene management.

CRS selected Forcier to accomplish one of the largest studies on knowledge, attitudes, environment and practices regarding menstruation in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Forcier put forth a holistically design mixed-methods approach for this research.


The research identified the main obstacles preventing girls in the DRC from meeting their menstrual hygiene needs: lack of awareness as a result of a substantial taboo that surrounds menstruation; poor infrastructure especially in villages and schools prevents girls from adequately taking care of themselves when they have their menses; lack of available and affordable tampons or sanitary napkins further complicates girl’s ability to ensure their menstrual hygiene.

As a result, girls often stay at home when they have their menses for fear of being “discovered” and “shamed” by members of their community.

The results of this study will help NGOs, the Congolese government and UNICEF adapt their interventions so as to better respond to the menstrual hygiene needs of girls and women in the country.

In particular, this research will help the Congolese government, along with UNICEF, reinforce the “Healthy Villages and Schools” programme that seeks to improve sanitary and hygienic conditions in thousands of villages and schools across the country by highlighting the need to raise awareness on menstrual hygiene, improve infrastructure and make available sanitary napkins. This will in turn allow girls to live more comfortable, healthy lives and live up to their true potential.


Catholic Relief Services (CRS) carries out the commitment of the Bishops of the United States to assist the poor and vulnerable overseas. It promotes human development by responding to major emergencies, fighting disease and poverty, and nurturing peaceful and just societies.


The CRS has chosen to award their portion of the donations to the other winning NFPs



Forcier Consulting provides high-quality data in some of the most challenging locations in the world. Their research informs programming for government agencies, NGOs, and the private sector alike – all designed and conducted from their offices in Africa and the Middle East.

Driving the Efforts to Prevent “Stunting” in Indonesia

Stunting is the impaired growth and development of children caused by poor nutrition and repeated infection resulting in their height being two standard deviations below the WHO Standards.

Stunting in the first 1000 days from conception, has adverse consequences on cognition, educational performance, adult wages. It’s not a “visible” illness and goes undetected in the early days. Behavior change on health and nutrition leading to prevention of stunting is a key task in emerging markets.

Indonesia has a higher incidence of stunting among ASEAN Countries …1 in 3 children. The government of Indonesia has committed to an integrated National Nutrition Communication Campaign (NNCC) for behavior change targeted at individuals, communities and stakeholders to minimize stunting. To this end, IMA World Health was commissioned by MCA Indonesia to design and implement an effective NNCC resulting in behavior change and lower stunting incidence.

Research Study Objectives and Methodology

Kantar TNS Indonesia conducted the in-depth study for the understanding of knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and behavior related to mother and child nutrition and stunting – to identify the motivators and deterrents to desired behavior, including the role of different influencers and influences to aid integrated communication strategy development covering message and media/touchpoint strategies.

Considering our need for in-depth understanding the study was conceived as a qualitative research study with multiple elements for a 360-degree view of our core target audience – Pregnant women, Mothers with children up to 2 years. In all we had 12 FGDs, 16 IDIs and 12 In-home observations and ethnographic interviews. In 3 rural locations with high stunting incidence – of which 2 locations (in Kalimantan) had a much higher incidence than the one in Sumatra. The different study elements were: …

  • FGDs in our core target group, Grandmothers, and Husbands
  • Full day in-home observation to learn real behaviors, family interactions, living conditions and hygiene
  • Paired interviews in-home with family members to clarify and probe deeper to understand motivations for observed behavior.
  • In-depth interviews with opinion leaders in the community, including religious/culture leaders; village heads, local officials and legislators, health workers and province/national level officials.

Salient Study Findings

  • Awareness was high for nutritional needs during the 1000-day period from conceiving. They had adequate (not complete) knowledge about the right diet. Their beliefs and attitudes couldn’t be faulted. However, the practice was not as desired. The critical task ahead was “behavior change”
  • Stunting is not a visible illness and nutrition needs are forgotten or traded off for other things in lower SES. Lower long-term orientation among Indonesians compounds it. Enhancing salience of “Stunting Illness” and prevention through nutrition and health care is the first step.
  • Enhancing knowledge on local, lower cost foods is important.
  • Creating salience of this issue among other family members (particularly husband) is critical. Today, the full burden is on the mother who tradeoffs others’ needs over hers.
  • Need to invest significantly in interpersonal behavior change interventions since we need to go beyond knowledge and attitude to action.
  • It’s a multi-sector problem and ensuring policy advocacy to improve the economic status (income earning opportunities, family planning) and easier access to medical facilities will go a long way.

Actions and Outcomes

Informed by these findings, NNCC has developed the communication strategy and plans with multiple communication elements and interventions

  • The rich insights from the study led to prioritization of core messages and led to effective creatives that tested well.
  • To drive awareness and salience mass media (TV, Radio, Dailies) is being used.
  • Supplemented with Digital channels –  Facebook, YouTube, NNCC website
  • Inter-personal communication training for health workers has been conducted with relevant materials. Activation events have been done in all health centers.

Multi-stakeholder advocacy interventions have helped in gaining support of decision makers, increased their commitment and support.

  • Project was mainstreamed into local nutrition programs with suitable regulations.
  • Multi-stakeholder District level forums have led to innovative local interventions.
  • National Summit on Stunting Prevention was attended by Vice President, 34 Provincial Governors, key ministers and officials.

Program implementation is ongoing. However, feedback from NNCC, IMA World Health suggests that we are on the right path … “This research program has made a big contribution to our mission …helped us start right. Stunting is no longer invisible. It’s a mainstream issue backed by the government and local communities. We have no doubt that we will see progressive reduction in stunting.

Credit to:

Kantar TNS: Team of Researcher: Yanti Zen, Astrid Novianti, Nurhasanah Ayuningtias, Widya TarunaHasty Larasati, Anastasia Seke

Clients: IMA Worldhealth, MCA Indonesia


Who violates the electoral legislation, and why?

The survey was carried out by GfK Ukraine for the Council of Europe within the project “Reform of the electoral practice in Ukraine”.

According to the research of the activities of Members of Parliament who were elected in 2014 in majoritarian districts, only 2 out of 84 MPs included in the research were not engaged in any “charity” (which actually means direct or indirect buying of voices)[1].

Upon the results of 2015 local elections, the national law enforcement authorities received 8,220 notifications of alleged electoral violations. 422 criminal proceedings were opened.

According to the results of the research conducted by Civil Network OPORA, among 422 criminal proceedings opened most are related to vote-buying (159) and to preclusion of the right to vote (97). Among 422 criminal proceedings opened, only 66 resulted in an indictment brought to a court for further consideration of the case.

Causes for electoral violation

To understand the causes and motivation, which lead the citizens to commit electoral violations, and to figure out necessary types and directions of further support to enhance effectiveness of mechanisms of accountability for electoral violations, it was necessary to conduct a sociological survey on causes for electoral violations.

At the first stage of the survey, six focus groups were conducted in six Ukrainian cities in order to collect insights for the quantitative survey.

At the second stage, the quantitative f2f survey was conducted with 1,635 respondents. The sample is representative of the adult population of Ukraine. After that, six focus groups were conducted with the members of election commissions, and the other six focus groups – with the members of the political parties in order to discuss the most prevalent types of electoral violations.

The survey questionnaire and guides include the following topics:

– Experience of violations during the elections in Ukraine (both national and local);

– Perception and attitude to the election-related violations;

– Readiness to combat the violations during the election process;

– Possible ways how to combat the violations during the electoral process.

The survey was conducted in June-July 2017.

The survey shows that most Ukrainians (68%) are dissatisfied with the integrity of the electoral process, and the society needs effective prevention, discovery, and investigation of electoral violations.

Moreover, 68% of Ukrainians have faced at least one type of election violations since 2014: election campaigning violations (named by 65%) and vote-buying (named by 13%) are the most prevalent types of violations. As vote-buying is one of the key problems in the electoral process in Ukraine, which needs to be tackled by an electoral reform, the present opinion poll is particularly focused on the question why a Ukrainian voter would sell his or her vote.

Results and possible outcomes

Results also indicate that most Ukrainians do not realize the seriousness of consequences of election violations (some violations are even perceived positively), and they are not ready to appeal to the law enforcement agencies if a party or a candidate offers them money or gifts in exchange for their votes. At the same time, the majority supports the increase of liability and strengthening the punishment for election-related violations.

Press Conference

The survey was designed jointly with experts from the Council of Europe and Civil Network OPORA and became subject to long-term public and expert discussions. Survey outputs were used as a justification for the development of a law on the inevitability of punishment for electoral crimes.

Consequently, in April 2018, the Government voiced the approval of the draft law “On Introduction of Amendments to Certain Legislative Acts of Ukraine Aimed to Strengthen the Liability for Violation of Electoral Legislation”, which was elaborated by Civil Network OPORA in cooperation with law enforcement agencies.

There is a high chance that Parliament will pass the law before the next elections in 2019. In that case, more liability will be imposed on both voters and campaigners, and the mechanism that prevents electoral violations will be improved, providing more integrity to the electoral process.

[1] Konieczna-Sałamatin J., Pryshchepa K. The efficiency of patronage mechanisms in post-Maidan Ukraine. Presentation at 3rd ISA Forum of Sociology, July 10-14, 2016, Vienna. The abstract is available via link


About the Authors:

Tamila Konoplytska, Senior Researcher at GFK Ukraine

Inna Volosevych, Head of Social and Political Research Department at GFK Ukraine

Dmytro Savchuk, Researcher at GFK Ukraine

Women, key players in economic development

I reflected the other day on the importance of International Women’s Day and its impact after the tragic fire in which 123 textile workers died in the Triangle Shirtwaist factory in New York, since then women have  been fighting tirelessly to win spaces in all the areas of life, on an equal footing with men, in society and in their integral development as a person.

In 2016 we, at Ipsos Ecuador, conducted a study promoted by the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), which aimed to provide relevant and reliable information to develop and propose alternatives to increase the participation of women in senior management and the directories of companies in the country.

The study demonstrates the importance of gender diversity in management positions. In general, the fact that a woman fulfills an important managerial position represents for a company the increase in competitiveness:

  • higher profitability,
  • better customer satisfaction rates and even,
  • greater degree of loyalty of the collaborators in said institutions.

The main findings of the study were:

  • At the country level, 65% of the largest companies in Ecuador do not have specific policies for the participation of women in directories and managerial positions, more accentuated in family businesses.
  • 8% of companies in the country do not have women at managerial levels, more evidenced in the city of Guayaquil, especially in family businesses.
  • Only 26% of the total managers are women, the most common trend is to find only 2 female managers per company.
  • Of those managements found almost half is within the administrative, HR and Commercial area of the companies.
  • Of the General Managements, 90% are occupied by men and only 10% are occupied by a woman.
  • 10% of companies do not have women on their boards and only 27% of all directors are women.

It is fundamental that as a society we work in the empowerment of women, that women should be free to choose what they want to be and to pursue their dreams. In Ecuador, 60% of citizens believe that if the mother works then the children suffer – which is not the case when they are asked what happens if the parents worked – the children will suffer? – There are already multiple studies that show that the children of working mothers are equal or even more successful in their lives than the children of mothers who do not work (they are more independent, more recursive and more sociable).

Likewise, 40% of women think that if they earn more than their partner then this will bring problems in their home – who in their right mind wants to have problems? – Women renounce their professional development before giving up their jobs.

In my case, I am an entrepreneur, Regional Manager of Ipsos in Ecuador, the only woman as a member of the Board of Directors of the Chamber of Commerce of Guayaquil and member of the directory of the Ecuador Productive and Sustainable project in 2030 and I am also a mother of Alejandro, my 3 years old son and my absolute priority. I will not say that it is always easy, but you can achieve a successful career and a family life in balance as long as the roles are shared and it is not the woman who carries the full responsibility.

About the Author:

Cristina Paez, Regional Manager at Ipsos, Ecuador